LIVING WITH IT WORKING WITH IT TREATING IT
FungiDB belongs to the EuPathDB family of databases and is an integrated genomic and functional genomic database for the kingdom Fungi. FungiDB was first released in early 2011 as a collaborative project between EuPathDB and the group of Jason Stajich (University of California, Riverside). At the end of 2015, FungiDB was integrated into the EuPathDB bioinformatic resource center - see this news item for additional information. For a list of the data integrated into FungiDB today and the related publications please see Data Sets.
FungiDB integrates whole genome sequence and annotation and also includes experimental and environmental isolate sequence data. The database includes comparative genomics, analysis of gene expression, and supplemental bioinformatics analyses and a web interface for data-mining.
Methods for susceptibility testing of Candida and Aspergillus are developed and validated by the EUCAST subcommittee on AFST.
New and revised documents open for consultation will until accepted be published in the EUCAST News section together with all other consultations from EUCAST.
Information on subcommittee organisation and members are available on the webpage describing the Organisation of EUCAST.
Information for industry aiming to bring agents to EUCAST for review and revision of breakpoints or a new agent to EMA for registration is available at Information for industry.
Development of new methods and validation and calibration of existing methods is performed at the EUCAST Development Laboratory for AFST:The EUCAST Development Laboratory for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
with the help of
The EUCAST AFST Network Laboratories
Chairman Maiken Cavling Arendrup (maiken.c.arendrup[at]escmid.org)
Scientific Secretary Susan J Howard (susan.howard[at]escmid.org)
Clinical Data Coordinator Joseph Meletiadis (joseph.meletiadis[at]escmid.org)
EUCAST Development Laboratory for fungi
c/o Unit of Mycology
Dept. Microbiology & Infection Control
Statens Serum Institut, Building 211
Phone: +45 3268 3223 or +45 3268 3116
The EUCAST Development Laboratories (EDL) are responsible for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fungi. Both laboratories are prepared to offer advice and provide trouble shooting in their respective field.
EUCAST Development Laboratory (EDL) for bacteria
c/o Erika Matuschek
SE-351 85 Växjö
EUCAST Development Laboratory (EDL) for fungi
c/o Maiken Cavling Arendrup
Unit for Mycology, building 211, 1st floor
Statens Serum Institute
DK-2300 Copenhagen S
The International Resource for Infection Control (iNRIC) brings together the best available on-line evidence-based, quality-tagged resources on infection prevention and control. A key benefit of iNRIC is the reviewer's assessments attached to documents within the library.
Rare Disease Day takes place on the last day of February each year.
The main objective of Rare Disease Day is to raise awareness amongst the general public and decision-makers about rare diseases and their impact on patients' lives.
The campaign targets primarily the general public and also seeks to raise awareness amongst policy makers, public authorities, industry representatives, researchers, health professionals and anyone who has a genuine interest in rare diseases.
Since Rare Disease Day was first launched by EURORDIS and its Council of National Alliances in 2008, thousands of events have taken place throughout the world reaching hundreds of thousands of people and resulting in a great deal of media coverage.
The political momentum resulting from Rare Disease Day also serves advocacy purposes. It has notably contributed to the advancement of national plans and policies for rare diseases in a number of countries.
The campaign started as a European event and has progressively become a world phenomenon, with the USA joining in 2009 and participation in over 80 countries throughout the world in 2015. Hundreds of cities continue to take part in Rare Disease Day and we hope even more will join in 2016. Some countries have decided to raise rare disease awareness further, for example, Spain declared 2013 as the National Year for Rare Diseases.
On rarediseaseday.org you can find information about the thousands of events happening around the world to build awareness for people living with a rare disease and their families. If you are planning an event, register your event details on our Post your Event page to get your event listed on the site.
Fungal diseases are neglected worldwide by public health authorities. Globally, over 300 million people of all ages suffer from a serious fungal infection every year. Of these over 1.66 million people are estimated to die, in comparison deaths from malaria and tuberculosis are 0.6 and 1.54 million respectively. Most serious fungal infections are ‘hidden’ because of other health problems such as - AIDS, cancer, transplantation, or asthma. Some are injury related such as fungal eye infections in farmers, How do you feed your children when your blindness stops you from working? Tens of thousands lose their eyesight every year from fungal keratitis. It is rarely diagnosed and treated. Serious fungal infections require specialized testing (view).
Alongside our Country Ambassadors, GAFFI has estimated the world's burden of fungal disease, described in a recent plenary lecture in Montreal by GAFFI's President(View). Antifungal drug availability is a major limitation to improved outcome, link.
GAFFI hosted a global fungal infection forum in Seattle and is calling for 95-95 by 2025, the objective: 95% of patients with serious fungal infections are diagnosed and treated.
Whether you are a patient, a carer or just interested in your health, Pfizerlife aims to help you make more informed decisions about how you can live your life in the best possible health.
There are lots of links here to help you with managing your health and using the NHS more effectively.
If you have ever had athlete's foot or a yeast infection, you can blame a fungus. A fungus is a primitive organism. Mushrooms, mold and mildew are examples. Fungi live in air, in soil, on plants and in water. Some live in the human body. Only about half of all types of fungi are harmful.
Some fungi reproduce through tiny spores in the air. You can inhale the spores or they can land on you. As a result, fungal infections often start in the lungs or on the skin. You are more likely to get a fungal infection if you have a weakened immune system or take antibiotics.
Fungi can be difficult to kill. For skin and nail infections, you can apply medicine directly to the infected area. Oral antifungal medicines are also available for serious infections.
In the current context we can only give an extremely brief introduction to the basic notions of molecular biology. An overview can be found in any modern textbook on biology, biochemistry or molecular biology (e.g. [ABL89], [Str88]). [Goa86] is a short review of computational methods in biological sequence analysis and recently several books summarizing problems and methods have been published ([Doo86], [Hei87], [Les88]).
Thousands of accumulated protocols useful for a wide range of scientific experimentation, including fungi.
BEI Resources was established by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to provide reagents, tools and information for studying Category A, B, and C priority pathogens, emerging infectious diseaseagents, non-pathogenic microbes and other microbiological materials of relevance to the research community. BEI Resources acquires authenticates, and produces reagents that scientists need to carry out basic research and develop improved diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapies. By centralizing these functions within BEI Resources, access to and use of these materials in the scientific community is monitored and quality control of the reagents is assured.
In addition to supplying the infectious disease community with materials, BEI Resources also encourages and supports the deposit of materials from researchers and institutions. Depositing materials with BEI Resources has many advantages to the researcher and the research community including secure storage, community access and distribution; all while protecting the intellectual property rights of the depositor. The BEI Resources repository will be maintained as a resource for researchers as long as there is need. Your deposit into BEI Resources is a long term investment to aid future research.
BEI Resources has been managed under contract by American Type Culture Collection(ATCC) since 2003. A seven-year contract to continue managing BEI Resources was awarded to ATCC in June 2010. The scope of the contract expanded in 2010 to a more comprehensive catalog of research materials, including those deposited by other Government-supported research projects, to be made available to the biodefense and emerging infectious disease scientific communities. Fungal, Parasite, Vector and other relevant Materials have been added to the existing Bacterial, Viral and Toxin reagents which cover NIAID Category A, B and C Priority Pathogens and NIAID designated emerging infectious disease agents and organisms. The BEI Resources program reflects a coordinated effort between NIAID, CDC, USDA, and ATCC.
You can search our catalog of reagents for a list of items in our current catalog. Materials from the Department of Defense Critical Reagents Program (CRP) may also be requested through BEI Resources. Scientists must be registered with BEI Resources to request materials.
Some use “microbiome” to mean all the microbes in a community. We and others use it to mean the full collection of genes of all the microbes in a community. The human microbiome (all of our microbes’ genes) can be considered a counterpart to the human genome (all of our genes). The genes in our microbiome outnumber the genes in our genome by about 100 to 1.
Microbes are everywhere: in the soil, in the water, and even in our bodies. That's right! Microbes cover every surface of our bodies, both inside and out. These microscopic life forms represent thousands of species, and they outnumber our own cells by about 10 to 1.
Aspergillus is one member of our microbiome community - even for people without aspergillosis!
Some scientists view our resident microbes as a newly discovered and largely unexplored organ, with many functions that are essential for life. Explore to learn more about the human microbiome.
The International Resource for Infection Control (iNRIC) brings together the best available on-line evidence-based, quality-tagged resources on infection prevention and control. Training courses listed are mainly UK-based
A new online version of the 4th edition is now available!
It will allow fast and very comfortable search through the entire Atlas text. The engine is fully equipped for title as well as for general search. Items are strongly linked, enabling direct use of the electronic version as a benchtool for identification and comparison. Text boxes with concise definitions appear, explaining all terminology while reading. The fourth edition will contain nearly 600 clinically relevant species, following all major developments in fungal diagnostics. Regular updates of the Atlas are planned, which should include numerous references to case reports, as well as expanded data on antifungals.
The currently used identification methods of agents causing human mycoses have serious limitations, are time consuming and require special trained personal. However to enable an informed choice for proper anti-fungal treatment an adequate identification at the specific level is necessary. DNA sequencing is an alternative to classical fungal identification. The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA gene cluster is now widely used in clinical laboratories for fungal species identification. We have generated quality controlled ITS sequence data representing the actual sequence variation found in a species.
Thanks to eleven contributing research groups from all around the world the database currently contains more than 3200 sequences representing 524 human/animal pathogenic fungal species. Users are encouraged to submit their full dataset to the curators of the database, to enable the build up of comprehensive global ITS database of clinically important fungal pathogens.
A personal blog by Canadian microbiologist 'Yuri' containing many years worth of high quality images of microbial subjects (macroscopic and microscopic), including many fungi and of course Aspergillus.
You should be able to find everything you wanted to know about fungi by clicking on the on the links on the images or on the text links. Tom promises to leave his pages at this site for a long time, and points out that you can always find them by typing (no spaces) into your browser.
Our use of fungi is usually hidden from view, so the way we most often directly encounter useful fungi is as part of a meal of mushrooms!
All photographs © David Moore 2011
Mushroom cultivation is important, and I will say more about it below, but it's not the only way we can and do make use of fungi.
The story of the statin based drugs provides an interesting insight into the discovery and development of modern pharmaceuticals. As well as looking at the complexity of the technology and science involved, this Special Studies Module also looks at the time and resources that must be devoted to developing a marketable drug from an initial concept. Whilst the pharmacology of a specific family of drugs might be similar, small differences in molecular composition, and human physiology can substantially alter the overall effectiveness of the drug, and even classes of patient in which the drug might be of use.
Given the cost of development, many drugs will become unaffordable to a large proportion of the world population, even if the cost seems reasonable in terms of suffering and the palliative care that might have to be offered in their place. The problem of cost may also be exasperated as the development and marketing of new drugs often seems to be in the control of a handful of large multinational companies.
Fungi have been influencing human affairs for thousands of years, whether as a direct food source, as a medicine, or in a food process . Today food of fungal origin is consumed all over the world in vast quantities, and commercial production is part of a rapidly growing industry. Fungi are of excellent value nutritionally, and of great importance to vegetarians. Edible mushrooms have high protein content, and are an excellent source of fibre, vitamins, and some minerals. Efforts to combat anticipated world food shortages, led to the production of ‘single cell protein’, grown in industrial fermenters using yeast cells. The result is a protein extract with high amino acid content potentially favourable for use in human nutrition. One particularly successful model was that of myco-protein, marketed as Quorn™. Essentially the mycelium of Fusarium venenatum, its filamentous nature much resembles the fibres of meat. Quorn is now available in supermarkets, marketed as a high-protein, low-fat, cholesterol-free ‘meat alternative’. When it comes to fungi as a food source, many people are apprehensive and much education is needed before the true nutritional value of such a cheap, readily available food source can be fully realised.
Fungi help the balance of nature by nutrient recycling. Fungi decompose things. Importantly, fungi are about the only organisms that can digest wood, because the lignin which is complexed with the cellulose in wood is so difficult to degrade. Lignin digestion is a fungal speciality but they gain nutrition from living or dead animals as well as plants, and the breakdown of other complex molecules such as cellulose and tannins in soils is due mostly to fungal enzymatic activity.
Fungi are all around us, and there are enormous numbers and quantities of them. It's been estimated that fungi make up 90% of the total living BIOMASS in forest soils. For grassland soils, another estimate puts the total length of hyphae at over 1 kilometre per gram weight!
There is such a large amount of fungal mycelium in most soils that it makes a major contribution to FOOD WEBS by being eaten by numerous vertebrates and invertebrates including insects, mites, molluscs and nematodes. Microarthropods are responsible for shredding organic matter in soil (and so prepare it for the final mineralization processes carried out by microbes), but about 80% of the tens of thousands of microarthropod species in forest soils are fungivores - they depend on the fungal mycelium for food.
When the mycelium makes fruit bodies (like mushrooms, brackets and truffles), these are also vital food sources for many animals, from mammals (including humans) to molluscs, as the following sequence of a slugfest shows ...