LIVING WITH IT WORKING WITH IT TREATING IT
Anyone can get a fungal infection, even people who are otherwise healthy. Fungi are common in the environment, and people breathe in or come in contact with fungal spores every day without getting sick. However, in people with weak immune systems, these fungi are more likely to cause an infection.
Infections that happen because a person’s immune system is weak are called opportunistic infections. These illnesses can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Many fungal infections are opportunistic infections.
Some people are born with a weak immune system. Others may have an illness that attacks the immune system such as HIV/AIDS. Some medications, like corticosteroids or cancer chemotherapy, can also lower the body’s ability to fight infections.
If you have a weakened immune system, you should be aware that fungal infections can happen. Learning about fungal infections can help you and your doctor recognize them early. This may help prevent serious complications.
As a stem cell transplant patient, you have new opportunities for a healthy and full life. Stem cell transplants have many benefits, but they also have risks. Because stem cell transplants destroy and rebuild your immune system, they increase your risk for fungal infections.
There are two main types of stem cell transplants:
There are different reasons for receiving either type of transplant. You and your healthcare provider will discuss your options and choose the treatment that’s best for you.
A transplant using stem cells from a donor increases your risk for fungal infection more than a transplant that uses stem cells from your own body. If your stem cells come from another person, you will need to take anti-rejection medication. This medication weakens your immune system.1
Chemotherapy and radiation lower your white blood cell count. As you recover from your transplant, your white blood cell count can become very low, also known as neutropenia[PDF - 4 pages]. During this time, your body will have trouble fighting infections, including fungal infections.2
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). If you receive stem cells from a donor, the transplanted stem cells may attack your body. This is known as graft-versus-host disease, which can increase your risk for fungal infection.3 The steroid medications given to treat graft-versus-host disease can also increase the chance of getting a fungal infection. 4
Fungal infections can range from mild to life-threatening. Some fungal infections are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important to seek treatment as soon as possible to try to avoid serious infection.
Fungal infections can look like bacterial or viral infections. If you’re taking medicine to fight an infection and you aren’t getting better, ask your doctor about testing you for a fungal infection.
Fungal infections can happen any time after your transplant. Fungal infections can happen days, weeks, or months after the stem cell transplant. If you develop GVHD, you’re at risk for a longer period of time.5
Some types of fungal infections are more common than others in stem cell transplant patients. Aspergillosis is the most common type of fungal infection in stem cell transplant patients, followed by Candida infection and mucormycosis, but other types of fungal infections are also possible.1
Your hospital stay matters. After your transplant, you may need to stay in the hospital for a long time. While there, you may need to have procedures that can increase your chance of getting a fungal infection. Please see the following sites for more information:
Where you live (geography) matters. Some disease-causing fungi are more common in certain parts of the world. If you live in or visit these areas, you may be more likely to get these infections than the general population. For more information on travel-related illnesses, please see the CDC Traveler’s Healthsite.
Indoor mold. You may be at higher risk for getting sick from indoor mold. For more information about indoor mold, please visit CDC's Basic Facts about Mold.
CDC's lead group for the prevention and control of fungal infections in the United States and internationally through epidemiological and microbiological studies to improve the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of mycotic diseases.
CDC's Mycotic Disease Branch (MDB) is dedicated to preventing death and disability due to fungal diseases. As one of the only public health groups in the world devoted specifically to the prevention and control of fungal infections, MDB works with domestic and international partners to determine the burden of fungal infections, respond to outbreaks, and to address public health problems related to fungal infections. Fungal diseases are a concern in the medical and public health community for several reasons[PDF - 2 pages]:
Our Branch is composed of three teams. Epidemiology and laboratory staff members work together to generate new information about the burden of fungal diseases and disease-causing fungi, detect and identify fungi in clinical samples, investigate the source of fungal outbreaks, conduct applied public health research, and provide training in the identification of medically important fungi.
Just like antibiotics cure bacterial infections, antifungal medications save lives by curing dangerous fungal infections. And just like some bacterial infections are resistant to antibiotics, some fungi no longer respond to the antifungal medications that are designed to cure them. This emerging phenomenon is known as antifungal resistance, and it’s primarily a concern for invasive infections with the fungus Candida but also Aspergillus.
Although antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a widely-recognized public health threat, less is known about the effects of antifungal resistance and the burden of drug-resistant fungal infections. This highlights the need for an improved understanding of the reasons for their emergence, heightened awareness among medical and public health communities about these infections, and greater attention to methods that can be used to prevent and control them.
The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN) was launched in 2014 to create a European platform for research and education in the field of Paediatric Mycology. Its aim is to increase the knowledge of the epidemiology and pathogenesis and to improve the management of invasive fungal infections in neonates and children.
The objectives of the EPMyN are:
Current activities are focussed on collecting the necessary information about the current management of invasive fungal infections in children and neonates from a large number of European centres. This information will be collected by an electronic survey and the data will be captured in the REDCap database. The results of this survey are expected to define specific areas of future research and will emphasize difficulties encountered in our daily practice which need to be addressed.
Our first post-graduate course in Paediatric Mycology is taking place on October 12-13, 2015 in Lisbon, Portugal (just after the Trends in Medical Mycology 2015). This post-graduate course specifically targets paediatric infectious diseases specialists, paediatric hemato-oncologists and immunologists, paediatric pulmonologists and neonatologists (and those in training).
Steering group: Adilia Warris (chair), Andreas Groll, Andrew Cant, Carlo Giaquinto, Elio Castagnola, Emmanuel Roilides, Irja Lutsar, Mike Sharland, Nigel Klein, Paolo Manzoni, Roger Brüggemann, Thomas Lehrnbecher.
Contact: Dr. Adilia Warris, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Fungal Group, Institute of Medical Sciences, Rm 4.23, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK.
The advent of modern medicine plus AIDS has greatly increased the susceptible population for fungal infection world-wide. Autopsy studies in Europe have shown striking increases in invasive fungal infections, many of which are undiagnosed at death. New antifungal drugs are available, some with better safety profiles than amphotericin B, others with better efficacy but none with uniformly high cure rates. Multiple questions abound – including issues of pharmacodynamics, genetic predisposition, optimal diagnostics, altering epidemiology, combination therapy and many more.
This ESCMID Study Group brings together Europe’s top clinicians, diagnosticians and researchers in invasive fungal infections to create a geographically dispersed critical mass of expertise to address many of these questions.
Many of you will wonder what on earth your Council does for you and ISHAM. Here is a summary of the current Council’s aims and achievements
The current council set as its main priority tackling several recurring problems with the goal of creating a more streamlined, robust and efficient structure for future councils to be better able to represent the interests of the society.
We have by no means met all our goals but we are well on the way of achieving our ambition to secure a promising future for ISHAM in particular and the mycology community in general.
Aspergillus Website listing of all known mycological societies
Aspergillus is intensively studied by a range of professional groups; medical, scientific, research, veterinary, taxonomists, genomists.
Some of these researchers are brought together in the Advances Against Aspergillosis meetings that occur once every two years (http://www.advancesagainstaspergillosis.org/) and we thought it would be worthwhile to provide this group to make contact between thses groups more easy between meetings.
Other groups are also welcome to join - all you need is an interest in Aspergillus.
The Aberdeen Fungal Group in partnership with Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands secured a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award worth £5.1 million, to establish and lead the Medical Mycology and Fungal Immunology Consortium.
The Consortium also comprises research expertise from Imperial College London and the Universities of Birmingham, Exeter, Glasgow, Kent, Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield, King's College London, St George's University London and other UK institutions.
Specific Aims of the Consortium:
The International Pediatric Fungal Network is a collaborative group of investigators and centers focused on pediatric invasive fungal infections. This Network is uniquely comprised of expert pediatric investigators dedicated to developing the optimal care for children with these life-threatening infections.
Our mission is to:
Duke University and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia serve as the coordinating centers for the International Pediatric Fungal Network (IPFN).
The UK Clinical Mycology Network (UKCMN) is a structured network of laboratories with a steering committee to guide and promote best practice in clinical mycology. This is achieved through regular meetings for all members, input into PHE UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations guidelines, and National Institute for Health & Care Excellence guidelines, and co-ordination of the following:
UKCMN’s functions are to:
To find out more, download the UKCMN constitution and terms of reference(PDF, 97.2KB, 2 pages) .
The Fungal Network of New Zealand (FUNNZ) is an independent non-profit incorporated mycological society open to anybody. FUNNZ organises an annual national fungal foray. The main objects of the Society are:
Raising awareness of the good things that fungi do for all of us.
Fungal diseases can affect anyone. Learning about them can help you and your doctor recognize the symptoms of a fungal disease early and may help prevent serious complications.
Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health.
Mild fungal skin diseases can look like a rash and are very common. Fungal diseases in the lungs are often similar to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly.
All good medical practice follows from an accurate and timely diagnosis. The approach that LIFE takes with respect to improving patient outcomes is a holistic one, but tempered by the realities of each country and region. In some countries, certain fungal infections are common and the emphasis should be on these, and others are rare and are therefore secondary problems to be dealt with. Diagnosis is the cornerstone of good medicine and clinical care.
LIFE aims to reach all medical practitioners and other healthcare professionals who see and treat fungal infections and those who contribute to the diagnosis such as laboratory workers and radiologists. Clinical expertise, and access to diagnostic facilities are all critical to improving outcomes. Likewise access to antifungal therapies is absolutely necessary for almost all serious fungal infections. The website is also provided in Spanish to facilitate international reach. An online course on microscopy and histology for fungal disease will be launched in 2016. Public awareness is also important specifically for some diseases such as SAFS and both skin and mucosal fungal infections.
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Welcome to the Elsevier Respiratory Webcasts Platform. These webcasts provide clinicians with data presented at two satellite symposia, at the 2015 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress, on Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated asthma, and new paradigms for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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This special series of commentaries, interviews, and slideshows is part of a collaboration between CDC and Medscape. This content is designed to deliver CDC's authoritative guidance directly to Medscape's physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals.
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FungiMICs is intended as an easy-to-use information source for physicians working in the field of fungal infections. The app aims to provide MIC data and associated clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values for different organism–drug interactions, in an intuitive and practical format.