LIVING WITH IT WORKING WITH IT TREATING IT
As an organ transplant patient, you have new opportunities for a healthy and full life. You may also have some new health challenges. One of those challenges is avoiding infections. While anti-rejection medication helps your accept the new organ by lowering your body’s immune system response, it can also put you at greater risk for fungal infections.
As a cancer patient, you may have received a lot of information about your treatment and your journey to recovery. Chemotherapy and radiation cause many changes in the body as they destroy cancer cells. One major change is that these treatments weaken your immune system, which can increase your chances of getting an infection, including a fungal infection.
Stem cell transplant patients or those who have a blood (hematologic) cancer such as leukemia, lymphoma, or myeloma may have different risks for fungal infections. Please see Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections for more information.
Chemotherapy and radiation lower your white blood cell count. As you receive your cancer treatment, your white blood cell count can become very low, also known as neutropenia[PDF - 2 pages]. During this time, your body will have trouble fighting infections, including fungal infections.1
Fungal infections can range from mild to life-threatening. Some fungal infections are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important to seek treatment as soon as possible to try to avoid serious infection.
Fungal infections can look like bacterial or viral infections. If you’re taking medicine to fight an infection and you aren’t getting better, ask your doctor about testing you for a fungal infection.
The type of cancer you have can affect your risk. If you have a blood cancer like leukemia or myeloma, you may be at greater risk for getting a fungal infection than people with other types of cancer.2,3
Your risk of infection can change based on the strength of your chemotherapy. Some types of cancer may require stronger chemotherapy medication than others, especially the blood cancers. This is sometimes known as aggressive chemotherapy. Aggressive chemotherapy weakens your immune system and can put you at risk for getting a fungal infection.4
Your hospital stay matters. After your transplant, you may need to stay in the hospital for a long time. While there, you may need to have procedures that can increase your chance of getting a fungal infection. Please see types of hospital-associated infections for more information.
Where you live (geography) matters. Some disease-causing fungi are more common in certain parts of the world. If you live in or visit these areas and have cancer, you may be more likely to get these infections than the general population.5 For more information on travel-related illnesses, please see the CDC Traveler’s Health site.
Anyone can get a fungal infection, even people who are otherwise healthy. Fungi are common in the environment, and people breathe in or come in contact with fungal spores every day without getting sick. However, in people with weak immune systems, these fungi are more likely to cause an infection.
Infections that happen because a person’s immune system is weak are called opportunistic infections. These illnesses can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Many fungal infections are opportunistic infections.
Some people are born with a weak immune system. Others may have an illness that attacks the immune system such as HIV/AIDS. Some medications, like corticosteroids or cancer chemotherapy, can also lower the body’s ability to fight infections.
If you have a weakened immune system, you should be aware that fungal infections can happen. Learning about fungal infections can help you and your doctor recognize them early. This may help prevent serious complications.
As a stem cell transplant patient, you have new opportunities for a healthy and full life. Stem cell transplants have many benefits, but they also have risks. Because stem cell transplants destroy and rebuild your immune system, they increase your risk for fungal infections.
There are two main types of stem cell transplants:
There are different reasons for receiving either type of transplant. You and your healthcare provider will discuss your options and choose the treatment that’s best for you.
A transplant using stem cells from a donor increases your risk for fungal infection more than a transplant that uses stem cells from your own body. If your stem cells come from another person, you will need to take anti-rejection medication. This medication weakens your immune system.1
Chemotherapy and radiation lower your white blood cell count. As you recover from your transplant, your white blood cell count can become very low, also known as neutropenia[PDF - 4 pages]. During this time, your body will have trouble fighting infections, including fungal infections.2
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). If you receive stem cells from a donor, the transplanted stem cells may attack your body. This is known as graft-versus-host disease, which can increase your risk for fungal infection.3 The steroid medications given to treat graft-versus-host disease can also increase the chance of getting a fungal infection. 4
Fungal infections can happen any time after your transplant. Fungal infections can happen days, weeks, or months after the stem cell transplant. If you develop GVHD, you’re at risk for a longer period of time.5
Some types of fungal infections are more common than others in stem cell transplant patients. Aspergillosis is the most common type of fungal infection in stem cell transplant patients, followed by Candida infection and mucormycosis, but other types of fungal infections are also possible.1
Your hospital stay matters. After your transplant, you may need to stay in the hospital for a long time. While there, you may need to have procedures that can increase your chance of getting a fungal infection. Please see the following sites for more information:
Where you live (geography) matters. Some disease-causing fungi are more common in certain parts of the world. If you live in or visit these areas, you may be more likely to get these infections than the general population. For more information on travel-related illnesses, please see the CDC Traveler’s Healthsite.
Indoor mold. You may be at higher risk for getting sick from indoor mold. For more information about indoor mold, please visit CDC's Basic Facts about Mold.
CDC's lead group for the prevention and control of fungal infections in the United States and internationally through epidemiological and microbiological studies to improve the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of mycotic diseases.
CDC's Mycotic Disease Branch (MDB) is dedicated to preventing death and disability due to fungal diseases. As one of the only public health groups in the world devoted specifically to the prevention and control of fungal infections, MDB works with domestic and international partners to determine the burden of fungal infections, respond to outbreaks, and to address public health problems related to fungal infections. Fungal diseases are a concern in the medical and public health community for several reasons[PDF - 2 pages]:
Our Branch is composed of three teams. Epidemiology and laboratory staff members work together to generate new information about the burden of fungal diseases and disease-causing fungi, detect and identify fungi in clinical samples, investigate the source of fungal outbreaks, conduct applied public health research, and provide training in the identification of medically important fungi.
Just like antibiotics cure bacterial infections, antifungal medications save lives by curing dangerous fungal infections. And just like some bacterial infections are resistant to antibiotics, some fungi no longer respond to the antifungal medications that are designed to cure them. This emerging phenomenon is known as antifungal resistance, and it’s primarily a concern for invasive infections with the fungus Candida but also Aspergillus.
Although antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a widely-recognized public health threat, less is known about the effects of antifungal resistance and the burden of drug-resistant fungal infections. This highlights the need for an improved understanding of the reasons for their emergence, heightened awareness among medical and public health communities about these infections, and greater attention to methods that can be used to prevent and control them.
Overall, most serious fungal infections are rare, but they do happen. They are most common among people with weak immune systems. People with certain health conditions may need to take medications with side effects that can weaken your immune system and put you at risk for fungal infections.
Specifically, corticosteroids and TNF (tumor necrosis factor) inhibitors are two types of medications that can increase your chances of getting a fungal infection.1
Some fungal infections can be serious, such as:
Other fungal infections, such as oral candidiasis (thrush), are usually not life threatening.11
Aspergillosis is an infection caused by Aspergillus, a common mold (a type of fungus) that lives indoors and outdoors. Most people breathe in Aspergillus spores every day without getting sick. However, people with weakened immune systems or lung diseases are at a higher risk of developing health problems due to Aspergillus. The types of health problems caused by Aspergillus include allergic reactions, lung infections, and infections in other organs.
For other fungal disease topics, visit the fungal diseases homepage.
The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN) was launched in 2014 to create a European platform for research and education in the field of Paediatric Mycology. Its aim is to increase the knowledge of the epidemiology and pathogenesis and to improve the management of invasive fungal infections in neonates and children.
The objectives of the EPMyN are:
Current activities are focussed on collecting the necessary information about the current management of invasive fungal infections in children and neonates from a large number of European centres. This information will be collected by an electronic survey and the data will be captured in the REDCap database. The results of this survey are expected to define specific areas of future research and will emphasize difficulties encountered in our daily practice which need to be addressed.
Our first post-graduate course in Paediatric Mycology is taking place on October 12-13, 2015 in Lisbon, Portugal (just after the Trends in Medical Mycology 2015). This post-graduate course specifically targets paediatric infectious diseases specialists, paediatric hemato-oncologists and immunologists, paediatric pulmonologists and neonatologists (and those in training).
Steering group: Adilia Warris (chair), Andreas Groll, Andrew Cant, Carlo Giaquinto, Elio Castagnola, Emmanuel Roilides, Irja Lutsar, Mike Sharland, Nigel Klein, Paolo Manzoni, Roger Brüggemann, Thomas Lehrnbecher.
Contact: Dr. Adilia Warris, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Fungal Group, Institute of Medical Sciences, Rm 4.23, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK.
The Fungal Network of New Zealand (FUNNZ) is an independent non-profit incorporated mycological society open to anybody. FUNNZ organises an annual national fungal foray. The main objects of the Society are:
Aspergillus Website listing of all known mycological societies
The advent of modern medicine plus AIDS has greatly increased the susceptible population for fungal infection world-wide. Autopsy studies in Europe have shown striking increases in invasive fungal infections, many of which are undiagnosed at death. New antifungal drugs are available, some with better safety profiles than amphotericin B, others with better efficacy but none with uniformly high cure rates. Multiple questions abound – including issues of pharmacodynamics, genetic predisposition, optimal diagnostics, altering epidemiology, combination therapy and many more.
This ESCMID Study Group brings together Europe’s top clinicians, diagnosticians and researchers in invasive fungal infections to create a geographically dispersed critical mass of expertise to address many of these questions.
Many of you will wonder what on earth your Council does for you and ISHAM. Here is a summary of the current Council’s aims and achievements
The current council set as its main priority tackling several recurring problems with the goal of creating a more streamlined, robust and efficient structure for future councils to be better able to represent the interests of the society.
We have by no means met all our goals but we are well on the way of achieving our ambition to secure a promising future for ISHAM in particular and the mycology community in general.
Aspergillus is intensively studied by a range of professional groups; medical, scientific, research, veterinary, taxonomists, genomists.
Some of these researchers are brought together in the Advances Against Aspergillosis meetings that occur once every two years (http://www.advancesagainstaspergillosis.org/) and we thought it would be worthwhile to provide this group to make contact between thses groups more easy between meetings.
Other groups are also welcome to join - all you need is an interest in Aspergillus.
The Aberdeen Fungal Group in partnership with Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands secured a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award worth £5.1 million, to establish and lead the Medical Mycology and Fungal Immunology Consortium.
The Consortium also comprises research expertise from Imperial College London and the Universities of Birmingham, Exeter, Glasgow, Kent, Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield, King's College London, St George's University London and other UK institutions.
Specific Aims of the Consortium:
The International Pediatric Fungal Network is a collaborative group of investigators and centers focused on pediatric invasive fungal infections. This Network is uniquely comprised of expert pediatric investigators dedicated to developing the optimal care for children with these life-threatening infections.
Our mission is to:
Duke University and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia serve as the coordinating centers for the International Pediatric Fungal Network (IPFN).
The UK Clinical Mycology Network (UKCMN) is a structured network of laboratories with a steering committee to guide and promote best practice in clinical mycology. This is achieved through regular meetings for all members, input into PHE UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations guidelines, and National Institute for Health & Care Excellence guidelines, and co-ordination of the following:
UKCMN’s functions are to:
To find out more, download the UKCMN constitution and terms of reference(PDF, 97.2KB, 2 pages) .
Raising awareness of the good things that fungi do for all of us.
InTech is committed to disseminating all published research without restricting access to anyone or anywhere in the world. Our fundamental vision is to allow all scientific communities, academia and professionals in scientific domains to access relevant research free of any charges. This is why, since 2004, InTech has actively contributed to easing the fundamental problem of limited access to knowledge offering scientific resources at no cost to scientific communities worldwide.
Furthermore, we strive to give all researchers the equal opportunity to share their knowledge and for their work to have an impact.
This is why we are immensely proud of the variety of our authors' and editors' geographical origin. We have worked with 91,942 authors and editors from 3,143 institutions and 152 countries.
Welcome to the Pathology Education Informational Resource (PEIR) Digital Library, a multidisciplinary public access image database for use in medical education
If you wish to sign up to the cTOC, you may do so here and click on “subscribe to new volume alerts”. Also there is a guiding article on how to write a case report, see here.
Businesses and research organisations can apply to funding competitions to help them develop their innovations.
All of the current and forthcoming funding competitions run by Innovate UK are published here.
You can apply for funding to test the feasibility of your idea, research and develop it and demonstrate it in a prototype.
Innovate UK funding competitions cover the following industry sectors:
We also have an open programme that is not sector based.
We also run funding competitions in partnership with government, other agencies and bodies.
Browse, register and apply for our current competitions.
This special series of commentaries, interviews, and slideshows is part of a collaboration between CDC and Medscape. This content is designed to deliver CDC's authoritative guidance directly to Medscape's physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals.
**Requires membership of Medscape to view, but membership is free of charge.