Phase I trial to investigate the effect of renal impairment on isavuconazole pharmacokinetics.

Author: 

Townsend RW, Akhtar S, Alcorn H, Berg JK, Kowalski DL, Mujais S, Desai AV.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Mar 7.

Abstract: 

PURPOSE:
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of renal impairment (RI) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isavuconazole and the inactive cleavage product, BAL8728.

METHODS:
A single intravenous dose of the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate (372 mg, equivalent to 200 mg isavuconazole and 75 mg of BAL8728 cleavage product) was administered to healthy controls (parts 1 and 2) and participants with mild, moderate, or severe RI (part 2) or ESRD (part 1); ESRD participants received two doses of 200 mg isavuconazole, 1 h post-dialysis (day 1) and prior to dialysis (day 15). Plasma PK parameters for isavuconazole included maximum concentration (C max), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time of dose to 72 h (AUC72), AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC∞), AUC to last measurable concentration (AUClast), half-life (t ½ h), volume of distribution (V z), and total clearance (CL), for the healthy control group versus those with mild, moderate, or severe RI or ESRD.

RESULTS:
Isavuconazole C max values were 4% higher in mild RI and 7, 14, and 21% lower in participants with moderate RI, severe RI, or ESRD versus the healthy control group, respectively. When hemodialysis occurred post-dose (day 15), participants with ESRD had a 30% increase in AUC72 for isavuconazole in parallel with reduction of extracellular volume induced by dialysis. Exposure (AUC∞ and AUClast) was not significantly different for participants with mild, moderate, or severe RI versus healthy controls although there was considerable variability. The t1/2 (day 1) was 125.5 ± 63.6 h (healthy control group), 204.5 ± 82.6 h (ESRD group) in part 1, and 140.5 ± 77.7 h (healthy control group), 117.0 ± 66.2 h (mild RI), 158.5 ± 56.4 h (moderate RI), and 145.8 ± 65.8 L/h (severe RI) in part 2. CL was 2.4 ± 0.8 L/h (healthy control group) and 2.9 ± 1.3 L/h (ESRD group) in part 1 and 2.4 ± 1.2 L/h (healthy control group), 2.5 ± 1.0 L/h (mild RI), 2.2 ± 0.8 L/h (moderate RI), and 2.4 ± 0.8 L/h (severe RI) in part 2. The V z was 382.6 ± 150.6 L in the healthy control group and 735.6 ± 277.3 L in ESRD patients on day 1 in part 1 of the study. In part 2 of the study, V z was 410.8 ± 89.7 L in the healthy control group, 341.6 ± 72.3 L in mild RI, 509.1 ± 262.2 L in moderate RI, and 439.4 L in severe RI.

CONCLUSIONS:
Based on the findings of this study, dose adjustments of isavuconazole are unlikely to be required in individuals with RI or in those with ESRD who receive hemodialysis.
KEYWORDS:
End-stage renal disease; Isavuconazole; Pharmacokinetics; Renal impairment