Endomyocardial and pericardial aspergillosis in critically ill patients.

Author: 

Dimopoulos G, Frantzeskaki F, Kosmopoulos M, Taccone FS, Van den Abeele AM, Bulpa P, Forêt F, Vogelaers D, Blot S, AspICU investigators.
Mycoses. 2017 May 12.

Abstract: 

Invasive aspergillosis(IA) is a potentially lethal complication of Aspergillus infection affecting mainly immunocompromised hosts; however, during the last two decades its incidence was increasingly observed in critically ill immunocompetent patients. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics of histologically proven endomyocardial and pericardial invasion, in the context of IA, in critically ill patients. Eight critically ill patients with histopathological confirmation of endomyocardial/pericardial aspergillosis were evaluated. Risk factors, clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatment, histopathological characteristics and mortality were recorded. Signs and symptoms of cardiac dysfunction were not observed in any of the patients. Therapy was administered to six of them shortly after the first positive culture. The observed histopathological lesions included haemorrhagic lesions, small vessels with central thrombosis and surrounding consolidated tissue with necrosis. Voriconazole, caspofungin, lipid amphotericin B and itraconazole were the used antifungals. The mortality rate was high (87.5%). Endomyocardial and pericardial aspergillosis are devastating complications of invasive aspergillosis. Clinical suspicion is low making the diagnosis difficult, therefore histopathological examination of tissues are required. The mortality is high.

KEYWORDS:
aspergillosis; critically ill; endomyocardium; pericardium